Publications

Li, Y., Suzuki, A., Cheung, C., Gu, Y., Kogou, S. & Liang, H., 2022.  A Study of Potential Laser-Induced Degradation in Remote Standoff Raman Spectroscopy for Wall Paintings. The European Physics Journal Plus, 137, 1102. https://doi.org/10.1140/epjp/s13360-022-03305-2

 

Liggins, F., Vichi, A., Liu, W., Hogg, A., Kogou, S., Chen, J. & Liang, H., 2022.​ Hyperspectral Imaging Solutions for the Non-Invasive Detection and Automated Mapping of Copper Trihydroxychlorides in Ancient Bronze. Heritage Science 10, 142. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-022-00765-8

Saxena, A., Tsakonas, C., Chappell, D., Cheung, C.S., Edwards, A.M.J., Liang, H., Sage, I.C., and Brown, C.V., 2021. Static and Dynamic Optical Analysis of Micro Wrinkle Formation on a Liquid Surface. Micromachines 2021, 12, 1583. https://doi.org/10.3390/Mi12121583

 

Zhang, Q., Cui, S., Liu, L., Wang, J., Wang, J., Zhang, E., Peng, J., Kogou, S., Liggins, F. and Liang, H., 2021. Deep Learning for the Extraction of Sketches from Spectral Images of Historical Paintings. In: H. Liang and R. Groves, eds., Optics for Arts, Architecture, and Archaeology Viii. Proceedings of SPIE, 11784. Washington: SPIE. ISBN 9781510644021 https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2593680

Kogou, S., Li, Y., Cheung, S., Liang, H., Thickett, D, Liggins, F. and Butler, L. 2021. Multimodal Remote Sensing for the Monitoring and Identification of Moisture and Salts on Heritage Buildings. In: H. Liang and R. Groves, eds., Optics for Arts, Architecture, and Archaeology Viii. Proceedings of SPIE, 11784. Washington: SPIE. ISBN 9781510644021 https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2593919

Leona, M., Fukunaga, K., Liang, H., Baglioni, P., Festa, G. And Levchenko, V. 2021. From Physics to Art and Back. Nature Revews Physics 3, 681–684. https://doi.org/10.1038/S42254-021-00362-X

 

Read, M., Cheung, C.S., Liang, H., Meek, A. and Korenberg, C. 2021. A Non-Invasive Investigation of Egyptian Faience Using Long Wavelength Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) at 2µm. Studies in Conservation 67, 168-175. https://doi.org/10.1080/00393630.2020.1871208 

Li, Y., Cheung C. S., Kogou, S. Hogg, A., Liang, H. and Evans, S. 2021. Standoff Laser Spectroscopy for Wall Paintings, Monuments and Architectural Interiors. In Transcending Boundaries: Integrated Approaches to Conservation. ICOM-CC 19th Triennial Conference Preprints, Beijing, 17–21 May 2021, ed. J. Bridgland. Paris: International Council of Museums.

Kogou, S., Shahtahmassebi, G., Lucian, A., Liang, H., Shui, B., Zhang, W., Su, B., and Van Schaik, S., 2020. From Remote Sensing and Machine Learning to the History of the Silk Road: Large Scale Material Identification on Wall Paintings. Scientific Report 10, 19312, https://doi.org/10.1038/S41598-020-76457-9

 

Kogou, S., Lee, L., Shahtahmassebi, G. and Liang, H., 2020. A New Approach to the Interpretation of XRF Spectral Imaging Data Using Neural Networks. X-Ray Spectrometry https://doi.org/10.1002/Xrs.3188

 

Li, Y., Cheung C. S., Kogou, S., Liggins, F., and Liang, H., 2019. Standoff Raman Spectroscopy for Architectural Interiors from 3-15m Distances. Optics Express, 27(22), 31338-31347 https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.031338

 

Read, M., Cheung, C.S., Ling, D., Korenberg, C., Meek, A., Kogou, S. and Liang, H., 2019. A Non-Invasive Investigation of Limoges Enamels using both Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Spectral Imaging: A Pilot Study. In: H. Liang and R. Groves, eds., Optics for Arts, Architecture, and Archaeology Vii. SPIE Optical Metrology, Munich, Germany, 24-27 June 2019. SPIE Proceedings 11058, 1105803 https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2527092

 

Vichi, A., Artesani, A., Cheung, C.S., Piccirillo, A., Comelli, D., Valentini, G., Poli, T., Nevin, A., Croveri, P. and Liang, H., 2019. An Exploratory Study for the Noninvasive Detection of Metal Soaps in Paintings through Optical Coherence Tomography. In: H. Liang and R. Groves, eds., Optics for Arts, Architecture, and Archaeology Vii. SPIE Optical Metrology, Munich, Germany, 24-27 June 2019. SPIE Proceedings, 11058, 1105805 http://doi.org/10.1117/12.2527569

 

Edwards, A.M.J., Atkinson, P.S., Cheung, C.S., Liang, H., Fairhurst, D.J. and Ouali, F.F., 2018. Density-Driven Flows in Evaporating Binary Liquid DropletsPhysical Review Letters, 121 (18): 184501  https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.184501

 

​Wijsman, S., Neate, S., Kogou, S., Liang, H., 2018. Uncovering the Oppenheimer Siddur: using Scientific Analysis to Reveal the Production Process of a Medieval Illuminated Hebrew Manuscript. Heritage Science 6, 15.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-018-0179-0

 

​Kromanis, R. and Liang, H., 2018. Condition Assessment of Structures using Smartphones: a Position Independent Multi-Epoch Imaging Approach. In: 9th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring Series (EWSHM), Manchester Hilton, Manchester, 10-13 July 2018.

 

Ogrodzki, P., Cheung, C.S., Saad, M., Dahmani, K., Coxill, R., Liang, H. and Forsythe, S.J., 2017. Rapid In Situ Imaging and Whole Genome Sequencing of Biofilm in Neonatal Feeding Tubes: A Clinical Proof of Concept. Scientific Reports, 7, 15948. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15769-9

Liang, H., Mari, M., Cheung, C.S., Kogou, S., Johnson, P. and Filippidis, G., 2017. Optical Coherence Tomography and Non-Linear Microscopy for Paintings – A Study of the Complementary Capabilities and Laser Degradation Effects. Optics Express, 25 (16), pp. 19640-19653. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.019640

Thickett, D., Cheung, C.S., Liang, H., Twydle, J., Maev, R.G. and Gavrilov, D., 2017. Using Non-Invasive Non-Destructive Techniques to Monitor Cultural Heritage Objects. Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, 59 (5), pp. 230-234. http://doi.org/10.1784/insi.2017.59.5.230

Kogou, S., Neate, S., Coveney, C., Miles, A., Boocock, D., Burgio, L., Cheung, C.S. and Liang, H., 2016. The Origins of The Selden Map of China: Scientific Analysis of the Painting Materials and Techniques Using a Holistic Approach. Heritage Science, 4, 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-016-0098-x

Cheung, C.S., Spring, M. and Liang, H., 2015. Ultra-High Resolution Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Old Master Paintings. Optics Express, 23 (8), pp. 10145-10157. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.23.010145

Cheung, C.S., Daniel, J.M.O., Tokurakawa, M., Clarkson, W.A. and Liang, H., 2015. High-Resolution Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in the 2 mm Wavelength Range using a Broadband Supercontinuum Source. Optics Express, 23 (3), pp. 1992-2001. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.23.001992

Liang, H., Cheung, C.S., Daniel, J.M.O., Tokurakawa, M., Clarkson, W.A. and Spring, M., 2015. High Resolution Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography at 2 Microns for Painted Objects. Proceedings Of SPIE 9527, 952705. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2185071

Lerwill, A., Brookes, A., Townsend, J.H., Hackney, S. and Liang, H., 2015. Micro-Fading Spectrometry: Investigating the Wavelength Specificity of Fading. Applied Physics A, 118 (2), pp. 457-463. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-014-8645-3

Lerwill, A., Townsend, J.H., Thomas, J., Hackney, S., Caspers, C. and Liang, H., 2015. Photochemical Colour Change for Traditional Watercolour Pigments in Low Oxygen Levels. Studies In Conservation, 60 (1), pp. 15-32. https://doi.org/10.1179/2047058413Y.0000000108

Tokurakawa, M., Daniel, J.M.O., Chenug, C.S., Liang, H. and Clarkson, W.A., 2015. Ultra-Broadband Wavelength-Swept Tm-Doped Fiber Laser using Wavelength-Combined Gain Stages. Optics Express, 23 (1), pp. 471-476. 

https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.23.000471

Kogou, S., Lucian, A., Bellesia, S., Burgio, L., Bailey, K., Brooks, C. and Liang, H., 2015. A Holistic Multimodal Approach to the Non-Invasive Analysis of Watercolour Paintings. Applied Physics A. Vol. 121(3), 999-1014 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-015-9425-4

Bailey, K., Bellesia, S., Burgio, L., Brooks, C., Lucian, A. and Liang, H., 2014. Chinese Export Paintings. V&A Conservation Journal (62).

Liang, H., Burgio, L., Bailey, K., Lucian, A., Bellesia, S., Cheung, C. and Brookes, C., 2014. Culture And Trade Through the Prism of Technical Art History: A Study of Chinese Export Paintings. Studies In Conservation, 59 (1). https://doi.org/10.1179/204705814X13975704318272

Cheung, C.S., Daniel, J.M.O., Tokurakawa, M., Clarkson, W.A. and Liang, H., 2014. Optical Coherence Tomography in the 2-µm Wavelength Regime for Paint and Other High Opacity Materials. Optics Letters, 39 (22), pp. 6509-6512. https://doi.org/10.1364/OL.39.006509

Liang, H., Lucian, A., Lange, R., Cheung, C.S. and Su, B., 2014. Remote Spectral Imaging with Simultaneous Extraction of 3d Topography for Historical Wall Paintings. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 95, pp. 13-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.05.011

Tokurakawa, M., Daniel, J.M.O., Cheung, C.S., Liang, H. and Clarkson, W.A., 2014. Wavelength-Swept Tm-Doped Fiber Laser Operating in the Two-Micron Wavelength Band. Optics Express, 22 (17), pp. 20014-20019. 

Bemand, E., Liang, H. and Bencsik, M., 2014. Non-Invasive Methods for In-Situ Assessing and Monitoring of the Vulnerability of Rock-Art Monuments. In: T. Darvill and A.P. Batarda Fernandes, eds., Open-Air Rock-Art Conservation and Management: State of the Art and Future Perspectives. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 244-258. 

 

Tokurakawa, M., Daniel, J.M., Cheung, C.S., Liang, H. and Clarkson, W.A., 2014. Wavelength-Swept Tm-Doped Fiber Lasers. In: Cleo: Science and Innovations, San Jose, California, United States, 8-13 June 2014. Washington, DC: Optical Society of America. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.020014

 

Manukyan, S., Sauer, H.M., Roisman, I.V., Baldwin, K.A., Fairhurst, D.J., Liang, H., Venzmer, J. and Tropea, C., 2013. Imaging Internal Flows in a Drying Sessile Polymer Dispersion Drop using Spectral Radar Optical Coherence Tomography (SR-OCT). Journal Of Colloid and Interface Science, 395, pp. 287-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2012.11.037

Cheung, C.S., Tokurakawa, M., Daniel, J., Clarkson, W.A. and Liang, H., 2013. Long Wavelength Optical Coherence Tomography for Painted Objects. Proceedings of SPIE, 8790, 87900j https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2021700

 

Bemand, E. and Liang, H., 2013. Optical Coherence Tomography for Vulnerability Assessment of Sandstone. Applied Optics, 52 (14), pp. 3387-3393. https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.52.003387

 

Liang, H., Lange, R., Peric, B. and Spring, M., 2013. Optimum Spectral Window for Imaging of Art with Optical Coherence Tomography. Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics, 111 (4), pp. 589-602. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-013-5378-5

Cheung, C.S. and Liang, H., 2013. Ultra-High Resolution Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Resolving Thin Layers in Painted Works of Art. Proceedings of SPIE, 8790, 87900m  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2020765

Liang, H., 2012. Advances In Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imaging for Archaeology and Art Conservation. Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 106 (2), pp. 309-323. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-011-6689-1

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Liang, H., 2012. Contributions of Astronomy to the Study of Art Conservation and Archaeology. In: From Antikythera to the Square Kilometre Array: Lessons from the Ancients, Kerastari, Greece, 12-15 June 2012, Kerastari, Greece.  https://doi.org/10.22323/1.170.0027

 

Liang, H., Sax, M., Saunders, D. and Tite, M., 2012. Optical Coherence Tomography for the Non-Invasive Investigation of the Microstructure of Ancient Egyptian Faience. Journal of Archaeological Science, 39, pp. 3683-3690. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2012.06.007

Lawman, S. and Liang, H., 2011. High Precision Dynamic Multi-Interface Profilometry with Optical Coherence Tomography. Applied Optics, 50 (32), pp. 6039-6048. https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.50.006039

Liang, H., Lange, R., Howard, H. and Spooner, J., 2011. Non-Invasive Investigations of a Wall Painting Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Hyperspectral Imaging. Proceedings of SPIE, 8084, 80840f  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.890088

Lange, R., Liang, H., Howard, H. and Spooner, J., 2011. Optical Coherence Tomography and Spectral Imaging of a Wall Painting. SPIE Newsroom.

 

Bemand, E., Bencsik, M. and Liang, H., 2011. OCT and NMR for Non-Invasive In-Situ Monitoring of the Vulnerability of Rock Art Monuments. Proceedings of SPIE, 8084, 80840h https://doi.org/10.1117/12.890084

Lange, R., Zhang, Q. and Liang, H., 2011. Remote Multispectral Imaging with Prisms and XRF Analysis of Tang Tomb Paintings. Proceedings of SPIE, 8084, 80840y https://doi.org/10.1117/12.890973

​Liang, H., Lange, R., Lucian, A., Hyndes, P., Townsend, J.H. and Hackney, S., 2011. Development of Portable Microfading Spectrometers for Measurement of Light Sensitivity of Materials. In: International Council of Museums, Committee for Conservation (ICOM-CC) Triennial Conference, Lisbon, 2011, Lisbon. ISBN 978-989-97522-0-7

Liang, H., 2011. Advanced Optical Imaging Methods for Investigating Manuscripts. In: S. Neate, D. Howell, R. Ovenden and A.M. Pollard, eds., The Technological Study of Books and Manuscripts as Artefacts: Research Questions and Analytical Solutions. Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 55-66. ISBN 9781407307671

 

Liang, H., Sax, M. and Saunders, D., 2011. Microstructure of Laboratory Replicates of Ancient Egyptian Faience: A New Investigation with Optical Coherence Tomography. In: D. Saunders, M. Strlic, C. Korenberg, N. Luxford and K. Birkhölzer, eds., Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks IX. London: Archtype Publishing. ISBN 9781904982876

Liang, H., 2010. A SWIR Hyperspectral Imaging System for Art History and Art Conservation. In: IX Congreso Nacional Del Color, Universidad De Alicante, Alicante, 29 June - 2 July 2010. Alicante: Universidad De Alicante, pp. 189-192. 

 

Shi, H., Liang, H., Han, J.L. and Hunstead, R.W., 2010. Radio Sources with Ultrahigh Polarization. Monthly Notices of The Royal Astronomical Society, 409 (2), pp. 821-838. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17347.x

Lawman, S. and Liang, H., 2009. Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for High Precision Profilometry. Proceedings of SPIE 2009, 7391, 73910h

Ho, P., Altamirano, P., Liang, H., et al. 2009. The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy. Astrophysical Journal, 694 (2), pp. 1610-1618.

Liang, H., Peric, B., Hughes, M., Podoleanu, A., Spring, M. and Roehrs, S., 2008. Optical Coherence Tomography in Archaeological and Conservation Science - A New Emerging Field. Proceedings of SPIE, 7139, 713915.  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.819499 

 

Lerwill, A., Townsend, J.H., Liang, H., Thomas, J. and Hackney, S., 2008. A Portable Microfading Spectrometer for Versatile Lightfastness Testing. E-Preservation Science (5), pp. 17-28. 

​Spring, M., Liang, H., Peric, B., Saunders, D. and Podoleanu, A., 2008. Optical Coherence Tomography - A Tool for High Resolution Non-Invasive 3D-Imaging of the Subsurface Structure of Paintings. In: International Council of Museums, Committee for Conservation (ICOM-CC) Triennial Conference, Delhi, 2008, Delhi. ISBN 978-81-8424-344-4

 

Liang, H., Keita, K., Vajzovic, T., and Zhang, Q., 2008. PRISMS: Remote High Resolution In Situ Multispectral Imaging of Wall Paintings. In: International Council of Museums, Committee for Conservation (ICOM-CC) Triennial Conference, New Delhi, 2008, New Delhi.

 

Liang, H., Keita, K., Peric, B. and Vajzovic, T., 2008. Pigment Identification with Optical Coherence Tomography and Multispectral Imaging. In: Proceedings of Osav'2008, The 2nd Int. Topical Meeting on Optical Sensing and Artificial Vision St. Petersburg, Russia, 12-15 May 2008, pp. 33-42.

Liang, H., Keita, K. and Vajzovic, T., 2007. PRISMS: A Portable Multispectral Imaging System for Remote In Situ Examination of Wall Paintings. Proceedings of SPIE, 6618, 661815 https://doi.org/10.1117/12.726034

​Liang, H., Peric, B., Hughes, M., Podoleanu, A., Spring, M. and Saunders, D., 2007. Optical Coherence Tomography for Art Conservation and Archaeology. In: Proceedings of SPIE, 6618, 661805 https://doi.org/10.1117/12.726032

Lerwill, A., Townsend, J.H., Liang, H., Hackney, S. and Thomas, J., 2007. A Versatile Microfadometer for Lightfastness Testing and Pigment Identification. Proceedings of SPIE, 6618, 66181g https://doi.org/10.1117/12.726029

​Liang, H., Peric, B., Spring, M., Saunders, D., Hughes, M. and Podoleanu, A.G., 2007. Non-Invasive Imaging of Subsurface Paint Layers with Optical Coherence Tomography. In: J.H. Townsend, L. Toniolo and F. Cappitelli, eds., Conservation Science 2007, Non-Destructive Testing, Milan, Italy, 10-11 May 2007. London: Archtype Publishing, pp. 171-176. ISBN 9781904982340

Peric, B., Martin-Simpson, M., Spring, M. and Liang, H., 2007. Spectral Transparency of Historic Artists' Pigments. In: J.H. Townsend, L. Toniolo and F. Cappitelli, eds., Conservation Science 2007, Milan, Italy, 10-11 May 2007. London: Archtype Publishing, pp. 185-186. ISBN 9781904982340

Podoleanu, A.G., Cucu, R., Rogers, J.A., Pedro, J., Dobre, G.M., Gomez, M., Liang, H., Amaechi, B.T. and Higham, S., 2006. Optical-Coherence Tomography, Extension to Imaging of Low Coherence Interferometry. Proceedings of SPIE, 6785, 67851i https://doi.org/10.1117/12.757868

​Saunders, D., Billinge, R., Cupitt, J., Atkinson, N. and Liang, H., 2006. A New Camera for High-Resolution Infrared Imaging of Works of Art. Studies in Conservation, 51 (4), pp. 277-290.

 

Liang, H., Cid, M.G., Cucu, R.G., Dobre, G.M., Podoleanu, A.G., Pedro, J. and Saunders, D., 2005. En-Face Optical Coherence Tomography - A Novel Application of Non-Invasive Imaging to Art Conservation. Optics Express, 13 (16), pp. 6133-6144. https://doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.006133

​Liang, H., Martin-Simpson, S., Podoleanu, A. and Saunders, D., 2006. Optical Coherence Tomography: A Non-Invasive Technique Applied to Painting Conservation. SPIE Highlight

Podoleanu, A.G., Liang, H., Cid, M.G., Cucu, R., Dobre, G.M., Pedro, J. and Saunders, D., 2005. In-Fiber Optical Coherence Tomograph for Examination of Paintings. Proceedings of SPIE, 6004, 600401  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.630185

Liang, H., Cid, M.G., Cucu, R.G., Dobre, G.M., Kudimov, B., Pedro, J., Saunders, D., Cupitt, J. and Podoleanu, A.G., 2005. Optical Coherence Tomography- A Non-Invasive Technique Applied to Conservation Of Paintings. Proceedings of SPIE 5857, 58570w https://doi.org/10.1117/12.612591

​Liang, H., Cid, M.G., Cucu, R., Dobre, G.M., Pedro, J. and Podoleanu, A.G., 2005. Optical Interferometry- From Astronomy to Art. In: Eos Conference on Industrial Imaging and Machine Vision, Imaging: Methods, Sensors and Processing, Munich, Germany, June 2005.

Saunders, D., Atkinson, N., Cupitt, J., Liang, H., Sawyers, C. and Bingham, R., 2005. SIRIS: A High Resolution Scanning Infrared Camera for Examining Paintings. Proceedings of SPIE, 5857, 58570q  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.612086

Liang, H., Saunders, D. and Cupitt, J., 2005. A New Multi-Spectral Imaging System for Examining Paintings. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 49 (6), pp. 551-562. 

Liang, H., Cucu, R., Dobre, G.M., Jackson, D.A., Pedro, J., Pannell, C., Saunders, D. and Podoleanu, A.G., 2004. Application of OCT to Examination of Easel Paintings. Second European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, 2004, 5502, pp. 378-381. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.566780

Liang, H., Laurenson, P. and Saunders, D., 2004. Application of Digital Technology in the Accurate Replication and Preservation of Slide-Based Works of Art. In: The International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works - Modern Art, New Museums, 20th International Congress, Bilbao, Spain, September 2004, Bilbao, Spain.

Liang, H., Saunders, D., Cupitt, J. and Benchouika, M., 2004. A New Multi-Spectral Imaging System for Examining Paintings. In: CGIV 2004 - Second European Conference on Color in Graphics, Imaging and Vision, Aachen, Germany, April 2004, Aachen, Germany.

Ribes, A., Brettel, H., Schmitt, F., Liang, H., Cupitt, J. and Saunders, D., 2003. Color and Spectral Imaging with the Crisatel Acquisition System. In: Pics 2003: The Pics Conference: An International Technical Conference on the Science and Systems of Digital Photography, Including the Fifth International Symposium on Multispectral Color Science, Rochester, NY, May 2003, Rochester, NY, USA