Fibre Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS)

FORS is a portable and flexible system for in situ reflectance spectroscopic measurements that complements visible/near infrared spectral imaging by providing higher spectral resolution and simultaneous capture of a wide wavelength range. ISAAC lab is equipped with a  range of portable and flexible FORS system for in situ measurements.

Imaging and Sensing for Archaeology, Art History and Conservation (ISAAC)'s Fibre Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) specifications


  • Identification of material including some with fine absorption lines (e.g. some red organic dyes).

  • Pigment and Binding media identification.

FORS examination of historic a manuscript in British Library